The Introduction of the Federation for a Democratic China
The Federation for a Democratic China, (FDC) was founded on 22nd September 1989 in Paris, France. It is the biggest Chinese political opposition with branches in many countries as well as in Mainland China.
Summary of Chinese History ruled by Chinese Communist Party
In 1949, Chinese Communist Party (CCP) overthrew the government of Chinese Nationalist Party and established a red communist government in China. Since then the CCP has been pursuing one-party rule and personal dictatorship. Socialism was forced upon its people. These policies together with class struggle have brought massive disasters and long suffering to Chinese people.
The rule of Chinese communist dictatorship has also brought a destructive tendency to the traditional Chinese culture while its value system and social morality has been destroyed completely. The remains of cultural tradition, such as personal cult, loyalty to monarchy and servility, have reached new height. Therefore, to establish a democratic system in China, it requires not only political and economic transformation but also cultural and moral re-building.
During the rule of Mao Zedong from 1949 to 1976 and the rule of Hua Guofeng from 1976 to 1978, the state was founded on a distorted form of communist ideology, and class struggle was held as its core principle. The CCP launched endless political campaigns, ruthless political persecutions, and caused irretrievable damage to social productive force as well as natural environment by ignoring the laws of economic development. It created a massive hatred amongst its people, which had never been seen in the history before. 80 million people perished senselessly as a result of slaughtering, terror and great famine. It is more than the total number of people killed during the two World Wars. After Mao’s death, many Chinese started with self–questioning and began to pursue democracy and freedom. This has given birth to the Democratic Wall movement in 1979. Deng Xiaoping, the new ruler of CCP, took advantage of the movement and regained his grip on power. However, instead of being grateful afterwards, he mercilessly smashed this democratic initiative. The opportunity for the Chinese democratization was washed away.
During the Deng’s era (1978 – 1989), the CCP recognised that it was impossible to maintain its governance in China if the dreary communist ideology continued to be practiced and the door of China was completely shut to the outside world. So the CCP began to open the door of China gradually and started an economic reform. However, with the deepening of the economic reform, the CCP refused to practice political liberalisation. On the contrary, its dictatorship was strengthened and reinforced. Consequently, the CCP was rapidly degenerated into a totally corrupted interest group as officials colluded with businessman and power with money. The state treasury was looted and the Chinese people lived under oppression. This led to the democracy movement in 1989. Facing the protest of students and citizens, who were against the corruption and collusion, the CCP with Deng Xiaoping as its leader, instead of repent, ruthlessly crashed the democracy movement by tanks and machineguns. Another chance for China’s democratization had gone up in smoke.
During the period of Jiang Zemin (1989 – 2003) and later as Hu Jintao took over the power, China continues to limp along the uneven track – free market economy accompanied by political dictatorship. Moreover, the CCP has degenerated into a fascist and Mafia Party. Social conflicts become more acute with frequent outbreaks of political confrontation. One of the obvious evidence is the current harsh persecution of CCP on Falun-Gong practitioners and human rights activists.
Within the Chinese society and internal CCP, there has been always a group of pioneers who were seeking for democracy. Those of internal CCP were represented by Hu Yaobang (the General Secretary of CCP 1981 -1986) and Zhao Ziyang (the General Secretary of CCP 1986 – 1989). Amongst commoners were those who took part in the 1979 Beijing Democracy Wall movement and in the nationwide Democratic Movement of 1989. The latter was ended as the well known June 4th Massacre, which shocked the world. However, Chinese people’s yearning for democracy and human rights were not crushed by tanks, but was growing even stronger. After the massacre many students, scholars and those devoted to democracy, were forced to leave their motherland. Through them, the persecuting and the sufferings of Chinese people as well as their fighting and struggling for democracy, freedom and human rights over the past decades became gradually hot topics in the international societies.
Establishment of the Federation for a Democratic China
After the event of June 4th 1989, China reversed from the processing of a historical transition. The Chinese lost a great opportunity to transform their political system. The CCP carried out a massive check-up and punishment to those democracy seekers inside and outside the Party. Some of them were arrested and sentenced, and others escaped from China to abroad. These situations brought forth the foundation of the Federation for A Democratic China overseas.
On 22nd September 1989, a group of Chinese including intellectuals, scholars, business men and student leaders gathered in Paris and established the FDC. Among the founders were Yan Jiaqi and Chen Yizi (staff and brain trust of Zhao Ziyang, the former General Secretary of CCP); Liu Binyan, Su Shaozhi and Su Xiaokang (well-known writers and scholars); Wan Runnan (founder & Chairman of the Chinese Stone Corporation); WUER Kaixi and Cai Chongguo (student leaders on Tiananmen Square). Soon FDC found supporters with local branches spread throughout the world, such as in: USA, Canada, France, Germany, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Greece, Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, Japan and Russia, etc. FDC developed gradually into an international political organization with its dedication to promote democratization in China.
Guiding Principles and Policies of FDC
The political guiding principles of FDC are:
To guarantee basic human rights;
To maintain social justice;
To develop multiple economic systems;
To end one-party ruling
To rebuild a democratic China.
The working principles of FDC are: peace, rationality and non-violence.
The FDC founders and its Chairmen:
Liu Binyan: former news paper reporter for < People’s Daily > (the official News Paper of Central Committee of CCP) and one of the most famous dissident writers in China. He was concluded as one of the Rightists during the campaign against the bourgeois Rightists (1957) and was expelled twice from CCP because of his criticising the corruptions of CCP. Since 1988 he had spent his life in USA until the 5th December 2005 as he passed away. He was awarded as the Conscience of China.
Su Shaozhi: former head of the Institute of Marxism-Leninism, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, well-know Marxism-Leninism researcher. He played a leading role in framing a political system reform of CCP and he used to be the Chairman of Princeton China Initiative.
Chen Yizi: former brain trusts of Zhao Ziyang, the former General Secretary of CCP. He used to be the head of the Institute of Economic System Reform, State Council of People’s Republic of China.
WUER Kaixi: the Vice Chairman of FDC (the first Congress). He was one of the student leaders during the democratic movement of 1989. He escaped from China after June 4th Massacre first to France, then moved to the USA. He lives now in Taiwan.
Yan Jiaqi: the Chairman of FDC (the first Congress). He had been the most influential scholar of political science since CCP started the open-door policy and the economic reform. He used to be the head of the Institute of Politics, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. After June 4th 1989, he left China. Now he lives in exile in the USA.
Wan Runnan: former Chairman of FDC (the second and third Congress). He was the founder and Chairman of Stone Corporation which was the first private company in China. He was on the wanted list of CCP, because he had supported the democratic movement of 1989. After June 4th Massacre he escaped abroad and has settled in the USA.
Du Zhifu: former Chairman of FDC (the fourth and fifth Congress). He is an Electrical Engineer and well-know Human Rights and social activist. He now resides in Canada.
Qi Mo: former Chairman of FDC (the sixth Congress). He is a scholar of history. He used to be a teacher at the Party Institute of Central Committee, CCP. He now resides in Germany.
Fei Liangyong: the Chairman of FDC (the current Congress). He is an expert of nuclear reactor, human rights and social activist. He also resides in Germany.
The Members of FDC Council & Supervisory Council (current Congress)
Chairman: Fei Liangyong (Germany)
Vice Chairman: Sheng Xue ( Canada)
Li Song (Japan)
Liang Youcan (Australia)
FDC Supervisory Council
Chairman: Cai Chongguo (France)
Secretary in General: Pan Yongzhong (Germany)
Additional members of the Council:
Qin Jin (Australia), Liu Gang (Denmark), Wang Guoxing (Holland), Qi Mo
Shui Li (United Kingdom), Zhang Yu (Sweden), Lin Fei (Japan), Pan Qing (New Zealand), Mo Weiqiang (Canada), Yao Yongzhan (USA)
Additional members of Supervisory Council:
Wan Runnan (USA), Wang Jinzhong (Japan), Zhang Xiaogang (Australia), Chen Nailiang (Germany), Zhu Jialie (Belgium), Zhang Jie (Switzerland)
The Current Situation and Task of FDC
Democracy movement is not only a political movement, but is also an ideological and cultural campaign. It requires the understanding and participation of the whole nation. So our main focus should be set on disseminating and spreading the idea of democracy to the people. The most important targets of FDC are as follows:
- to expose and condemn the systematic faults of the CCP’s dictatorship.
- to introduce and promote the successful experiences of the democratic political systems in western countries;
- to continuously work on solutions for the ongoing problems in China;
- to construct a blueprint for China’s peaceful transformation and further development.
FDC advocates co-operation with international democratic forces. The principle of FDC is to eradicate one-party dictatorship and build up a democratic system. FDC believes the transformation in China should be a peaceful and gradual evolution. China, with its large population and vast territory, is a big country in the world, and at the same time the biggest totalitarian country remaining. If China adopts democracy, the other small dictatorships would soon collapse. That is why we say that Chinese democratization is crucial for the global democratization. FDC is calling for unreserved support from the international democratic forces. FDC reposes high hopes in each democratic country to stand firm on democratic principles and spirits of liberty, equality and fraternity, and to support Chinese democratic cause, also to support Chinese democratic forces. FDC requires other governments to put pressure on Chinese government to improve human rights and to start political reforms.
For many years FDC has played an important role in the struggle against the tyranny of CCP and in exposing their crimes. FDC has taken a part in helping those democratic activists. FDC continually appeals to the Western democratic countries to pressurise the CCP regime to improve human rights. FDC also promotes political and cultural exchanges between China and other countries. During recent years, the key leaders of FDC, Fei Liangyong and Sheng Xue, have made many visits to Germany, USA, Canada, Japan and Australia. After numerous discussions with members of EU Parliament, government officials, ministers, political parties and human rights organizations about human rights in China and the Chinese democratization, the majority offered their ongoing support. FDC has organised several important conferences in different places of the world and it has kept a friendly co-operative relationship with other democratic organisations, human rights and religious groups. FDC supports and assists democratic movements, labour rights campaigns and citizen rights protecting activities inside China. In order to react promptly to possible dramatic changes in China, FDC started working on a system of rapid response.
FDC would like to set up a dialogue channel with CCP. For promoting a peaceful transition in China, FDC would like to talk with the reformers inside CCP as well as with the conservatives of CCP. That will be extraordinary positive for the Chinese people, for the CCP itself and for the world peace.
The steps of the democratic transformation FDC suggests to CCP
- Recognising the universal value, general standards and definition of democracy. A democratic system should include: supremacy of human rights; separation and balancing of power; a multi-party system; selecting government officials by free people elections; judicial independence and free press.
- Revising the constitution to remove Four Basic Principles (persisting in socialist path, persisting in proletariat dictatorship, persisting in communist leadership and persisting in Marxism-Leninism and Mao’s thoughts) and abolish the policy of ”one-country with two systems”.
- With past due respect to the June 4th Tian’anmen Square event, bringing the butchers of June 4th Massacre to justice, apologising and compensation for the families and relatives of the victims, and erecting a monument for the June 4th
- Stopping any kind of political persecution, and releasing immediately all political prisoners including dissidents, members of religions not authorised by the government and Falun-Gong practitioners; Allowing democratic activists in exile to return to China unconditionally, and to discuss national affairs.
- Working out a time table for the Chinese democratisation and returning the power to the Chinese people with no delay. Gradually dismantling restrictions on free press and political association, safeguarding the rights of freedom of speech, freedom of press, freedom of association and freedom of religions and believes. Establishing a democratic election system starting from the low level in villages, then to the medium level in provinces, later to the high level – direct election for national congress, the premier and president. Ensuring the independence of jurisdiction to protect human rights.
The counterpart of the Chinese democratic forces is the strongest dictatorship in the world. It seems that they are not compatible in size, but democracy represents the main development trend of human society. The dictatorship of CCP will be discarded sooner or later and the Chinese democratic cause shall prevail.
The contact information of FDC
Fei Liangyong: Jordanstr. 8, 90513 Zirndorf, Germany
Tel: 49-911-22 38 20, Fax: 49-911-22 38 28
Mobile: 49-179-202 8873, E-mail: email@example.com
Sheng Xue: 3325 Juanita Crt. Mississaug Ont. L5A 3J5 Canada
Tel & Fax: 1-905-2722737
Li Song 日本国 东京都 新宿区 5-4-1-308， Japan
Tel & Fax: 81-3-33558418
Mobile: 81-9035771914, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Liang Youcan 514 Plenty Road, Mill Park VIC 3082, Australia
Tel: 61-3-94364345 Mobile: 61-4-12288126
Pan Yongzhong Rheinweg 160, 41812 Erkelenz, Germany
Tel: 49-2431-94 66 37, Fax: 49-2431-94 66 38
Mobile: 49-173-256 0548, E-mail: email@example.com